Mission Statement

The primary goal of Slavery Images is to further the progress of knowledge and creativity for the benefit of humankind. This open-source website is intended for personal, educational and non-commercial purposes for students, teachers, scholars, and the general public worldwide. Throughout development, the Slavery Images team is making every effort to adhere to all accessibility standards for the hearing and visually impaired. Slavery Images offers public access to collections of historical materials and 3D educational environments related to the history of the African slave trade and slave life in the early African diaspora. Many materials contained herein were products of their particular times, and may contain offensive language or negative stereotypes. Slavery Images does not condone racism, discrimination, or prejudice of any kind.

Conditions of Use and Attribution

If you choose to download, use or redistribute any resources or materials from this website, acknowledgements fall under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International license (CCBY-NC 4.0). It would therefore be appreciated if recognition is given to Slavery Images by providing relevant bibliographic information, such as: image author, image title, website title, image reference number, name of person or entity responsible for compiling metadata, and year of access.

For example: J.W. Buel, "Slave Coffle, Western Sudan, 1879-81,” in Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, Image Buel-01, metadata by Jerome Handler and Michael Tuite, 2019.

In order to attribute any 3D data inclusive of all derivatives of data requires attribution. Please acknowledge any 3D data and its derivatives accordingly: heritage site, website title, name of person or entity responsible for compiling or altering metadata and/or text, and year of access.

For example: "Annaberg Plantation, St. John," in Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, data compiled by Trimble Inc., text by Henry B. Lovejoy and Travis May, 2019. 

In order to attribute any 3D data inclusive of all derivatives of data requires attribution. Please acknowledge any 3D data and its derivatives accordingly: heritage site, website title, name of person or entity responsible for compiling or altering metadata and/or text, and year of access.

For example: "Annaberg Plantation, St. John," in Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, data compiled by Trimble Inc. 

If you wish to acknowledge Slavery Images on other websites, please feel free to display our logo. The pictogram is an Adinkra symbol meaning "independence, freedom, and emancipation."

Copyright of Historical Images

Ultimately, it is the user or researcher's obligation to assess copyright or other use restrictions in order to obtain permission from third parties when necessary before publishing or otherwise redistributing the historical images obtained through Slavery Images. If Slavery Images violates copyright in anyway, please contact us directly so that we may arrive at a solution and/or remove the appropriate images as required.

The authors and hosting institution of this website must not be held responsible for copyright infringement. As an open-source, non-commercial and educational digital resource, Slavery Images does not own rights to materials held in this digital collection and does not license or charge permission fees for use of materials. Additionally, Slavery Images cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise redistribute any materials. Most of the historical images displayed on this website were created before 1923, meaning they are considered to be in the public domain under the "Fair Use" clause in U.S. Copyright Law. However, copyright may still apply because some historical images were digitized from books and other resources published after 1923 and/or outside the United States. Any such restrictions are usually indicated within the metadata accompanying the relevant image on a case-by-case basis. Slavery Images also recommends taking into careful consideration the Library of Congress’s guidelines related to Copyright and Other Restrictions That Apply to Publication/Distribution of Images: Assessing the Risk of Using a P&P Image, as well as the library's Legal Disclaimer.

In most cases, the sources we have used to digitize images are available in several, if not most, major research libraries, particularly those with large collections of materials related to the history of the African diaspora. Users interested in obtaining higher resolution images from original sources are advised to locate sources themselves through conventional searches of online catalogs of major university or public research libraries, as well as WorldCat/OCLC. We intentionally provide no additional information on the location of sources within the metadata because multiple copies likely exist. In some cases, however, certain images have restricted distribution rights, especially materials derived from rare books and special collections. Whenever applicable, Slavery Images usually acknowledges these specific restrictions within the metadata of a specific image. In such cases, the acknowledgement of a particular library in our metadata does not mean this library is the only place the image is located. Again, copies of all images held in this online resource almost certainly exist in multiple locations.  For more information about where specific images displayed on this website originated, we have included for your reference a copy of Jerome Handler's Research Notes [LINK REQUIRED]. These research notes, which include printouts of Handler's library searches, were digitized "as is" from two boxes organized alphabetically according to the author of a resource within which an image, or multiple images, were displayed or published.    

Copyright of 3D Data

At present, Trimble Inc. collected and prepared the 3D point clouds of heritage sites for viewing using Trimble-manufactured laser scanners, unmaned aerial vehicles, rovers and global navigational satellite systems; and various data processing software they develop. In 2018, Slavery Images and Trimble Inc. entered into a partnership, whereby Trimble Inc. has donated and licensed in perpetuity all avaialble 3D point clouds for full-scale replicas of world heritage sites. They have also licensed to us, free of charge, any software and online viewers for interactive presentations. We are in the process of moving toward presenting all 3D environments using open-source software. Permission to share, redistribute and alter these data through the Slavery Images website falls under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International license (CCBY-NC 4.0). For instructions on attribution, please see above. 

Image Quality Disclaimer

Attempts are being made to obtain and provide the best quality images possible. Slavery Images does not offer any assistance or advice regarding image quality control. For the most part, the images provided herein are in .tif format with corresponding metadata about the image. This website was designed to function with the International Image Interoperabilty Framework (IIIF).  In terms of 3D data, we aim to offer various file formats of data from pre-meshed, raw data to light-weight derivatives (.tzf, .rwp, .las, and .skp). Due to changing technologies and software, especially surrounding 3D data and viewers, Slavery Images will attempt to adhere to the Community Standards in 3D Data Preservation (CS3DP). If you have other materials related to the theme of this resource, and/or better quality images, please contact us or submit materials through the contribute page.

Open-Source Code and Past Websites

All aspects of Slavery Images are intended for the public domain, including source code. We aim to use as much open-source code as possible, and if it is not available, any code we develop will be made available. Due to the relaunch of the site which incorporates IIIF, Brumfield Labs built an Omeka S module to install and launch Mirador for items. This barebones implementation gives users a new Mirador action for items that will bring up an item in a new Mirador container page. It contains the final release of Mirador 2. This module is not intended for anyone who is not comfortable developing their own themes.

We also aim to host past versions of the website to demostrate development over time. Past versions can be accessed via Project History