Female Clothing and Hair Styles, San Paolo, Brazil, 1817-1820
Left: Mameluca, the offspring of a European/Caucasian father and an indigenous mother, shown spinning cotton, using a spindle-whorl; right, Cafusa, intermediate race between Indian and black, smoking a very long-stemmed pipe.
Johann Baptist von Spix, Reise in Brasilien in den jahren 1817-1820 (Munchen, 1823-31; reprinted Stuttgart, 1966-67), Atlas (originally published 1831), Plate 33.
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South America--Brazil--São Paulo
"Female Clothing and Hair Styles, San Paolo, Brazil, 1817-1820", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed October 15, 2021, http://slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/849