Modern map showing major slaving routes from Africa to Old and New Worlds.
Paul Finkelman and Joseph Miller, eds., Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (New York, 1998), vol. 1, p. xlvii. (Reproduction courtesy of Macmillan Reference USA, an Imprint of the Gale Group, a Thomson Learning Company)
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"African Diaspora ", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed November 17, 2019, http://slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/664