Slave Coffle, East Africa, 1891
The Graphic: An Illustrated Weekly Newspaper (London), vol. 45 (1892), title page
Caption: Under the Portuguese Flag. Slavery in the Portuguese districts of South-east Africa. from a sketch by Sir John Willoughby. Accompanies an article (p. 275) of the same title, the first of three articles dealing with slavery in this area. The engraving (by G. Durand) was based on a sketch by Willoughby who visited the area, up to 500 miles inland from the coast, in November 1891, and who personally witnessed . . . scenes of violence and oppression. On one occasion, he saw two gangs of slaves, each consisting of of a dozen women, mostly with little children on their backs, and all chained together by means of heavy lengths of chains attached to iron rings round their necks. Daniel Mannix, Black Cargoes (New York, 1962), after p. 146, gives a misleading caption and erroneously dates this engraving to the 1870s.
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