African Mule Driver, Peru, 1600-1615
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala [Guaman Poma], El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno; edited by John Murra and Rolena Adorno with translations from Quechua by Jorge L. Urioste (Mexico, 1980; a facsimile edition), Vol. 3, p. 1001.
Title of drawing, translated: A Spanish traveler and his African muleteer on their journey to the royal inn. A Spaniard on his horse is followed by an African astride another horse (or mule); the African holds a whip and is presumably on the lead animal pulling a wagon or sorts. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala was a native Andean from southern Peru who addressed his lengthy critique of Spanish colonial rule to King Philip III of Spain. It was written between 1600 and 1615, and is composed of 1,200 pages, including 398 full-page drawings seven of which show blacks or Africans. The original manuscript is in the Danish Royal Library (Copenhagen); a complete and searchable digital facsimile, which includes the drawings, is available on the Internet as The Guaman Poma Website. The title translations we use are taken from the website. The drawing is in Chapter 35, image 384, of the original manuscript. (See Frederick P. Bowser, The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 [Stanford University Press, 1974], passim, for the historical context of this drawing.)
Guaman Poma de Ayala, Felipe
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