Carrying a Sedan Chair (Palanquin), Brazil, 1820s
Maria Graham [Lady Maria Callcott], Journal of a voyage to Brazil and residence there, during part of the years 1821, 1822, 1823 (London, 1824), p. 133. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)
Caption cadeira, or sedan chair of Bahia; two domestic servants (slaves) carrying a European woman. The Brazilian scholar, Gilberto Freyre writes: Within their hammocks and palanquins the gentry permitted themselves to be carried about by Negroes for whole days at a time, some of them travelling in this manner from one plantation to another, while others employed this mode of transport in the streets; when acquaintenances met, it was the custom to draw up alongside one another and hold a conversation (The Masters and the Slaves [New York, 1956], pp. 409-410, 428).
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