Free Woman of Color, Senegal, 1780s
Caption, Signar ou femme de coleur du Sènègal; woman shown in elaborate dress, house in background. Villeneuve writes that women of color and free black women assume the Portuguese title of signare or niara; they live voluntarily with European men in a sort of marriage and view themselves as the legitimate spouses of these men, remaining faithful, and giving the father's name to the children who result from this union. He provides a detailed description of their clothing, adding that gold earrings, necklaces, and bracelets form part of their ensemble (vol. 1, pp. 68-69). Villeneuve lived in the Senegal region for about two years in the mid-to-late 1780s. The engravings in his book, he writes, were made from drawings that were mostly done on the spot during his African residence (vol. 1, pp. v-vi). The same illustration appears in color in the English translation of Villeneuve; see Frederic Shoberl (ed.), Africa; containing a description of the manners and customs, with some historical particulars of the Moors of the Zahara . . . (London, 1821), vol. 2, facing p. 31.
Renè Claude Geoffroy de Villeneuve, L'Afrique, ou histoire, moeurs, usages et coutumes des africains: le Sènègal (Paris, 1814), vol. 1, facing p. 69. (Copy in Special Collections, University of Virginia Library)
de Villeneuve, Renè Claude Geoffroy
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"Free Woman of Color, Senegal, 1780s", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed September 25, 2022, http://slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1695