Emancipation & Post-Slavery Life

  • Le Negre Marron (The Black Maroon), Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1970

    Le Negre Marron (The Black Maroon; in creole, Neg Mawon), often translated in English as the Unknown Slave, although Fugitive or Rebel Slave would probably be more accurate in the context of Haitian history. Located on the boulevard Champ de Mars with Haiti's presidential palace in background. The Negre Marron is shown with left leg extended (broken chain on his ankle); a machete (partially hidden by flower wreaths) is in his right hand, and his left hand holds a conch shell to his lips. The conch shell was often used as a trumpet to assemble people. Created by the Haitian sculptor/architect, Albert Mangones (1917-2002) in 1968 or 1969, the statue was commissioned by the government of president Francois Duvalier to commemorate the slaves who revolted against France. (Thanks to several respondants on Caribbean List Serve, including Lorraine Mangones, the sculptor's daughter, for information on the statue). The wreaths shown in this photograph were laid by the South Korean Ambassador who had presented his credentials not long before the photograph was taken in April 1970. Le Negre Marron survived the horrible earthquake of 12 January 2010, but the presidential palace was destroyed (Thanks to Robert Fatton for this information).
  • Celebrating Abolition, Washington, D.C. 1866

    Caption, Celebration of the Abolition of Slavery in the District of Columbia by the Colored People, in Washington, April 19, 1866.
  • Emancipated Slaves, North Carolina, 1863

    Caption, The Effects of the Proclamation -- Freed Negroes Coming into Our Lines at Newbern, North Carolina, 1863; men, women, and children, accompanied by troops of the Union Army. These ex-slaves were contrabands who chose to relocate after the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Emancipation Monument, Barbados

    Larger than life-sized statue of unknown slave, with broken shackles. Named Slave in Revolt by its creator, the Barbadian sculptor Karl Broodhagen, this statue was commissioned by the government of Barbados to commemorate the 150th anniversary of slave emancipation in the British colonies; it was unveiled in March 1985.
  • Le Negre Marron (The Black Maroon), Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1970

    Back view of the Negre Marron showing the conch shell raised to his lips; see image NW0229 for details.
  • Emancipation Festival, Barbados, 19th cent.

    Slaves in Barbados and throughout the British Empire were emancipated in 1834-38. This illustration is sometimes reproduced in modern secondary sources treating slavery in the British Empire to suggest an eyewitness depiction of an event that actually occurred on the island. However, it is a late 19th century unidentified artist's (the initials HMP are in the lower left hand corner) fanciful depiction. Reproductions of this image in secondary sources never give the original source, but the historian John Gilmore's meticulous research identified the illustration's first publication as the Jubilee edition of Cassell's History of England (1886-95, vol. 5, p. 369). Gilmore's critical discussion of the illustration stresses that it does [not] seem to be of any real value as historical evidence about popular festivals in Barbados, and is based solely on the artist's own imagination, rather than any direct observations or hearsay evidence (see That Emancipation Picture, Banja: a magazine of Barbados life and culture [The Barbados National Cultural Foundation, 1990], issue no. 5, pp. 10-12). The same illustration was reprinted in subsequent editions of Cassell's History, e.g., the Century edition, (1903, vol. 5), the King's edition (London, 1909), the Special edition (London, n.d.).
  • Emancipation Day, South Carolina, 1863

    Caption, The color-sergeant of the 1st South Carolina (Colored) addressing the regiment after having been presented with the Stars and Strips, at Smith's plantation, Port Royal, January 1. Shows former slaves of South Carolinia sea islands, freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, celebrating. Sergeant Prince Rivers and Corporal Robert Sutton present the colors, while the former addresses the crowd; white teachers and missionaries from the North are seated on the platform.
  • Statue of Emancipated Slave, Philadelphia, 1876

    Bronze statue by Francisco Pezzicar, sketched by a special artist. Caption, Philadelphia, Pa. The Centenniel Exposition. The Statue of the 'Freed Slave' in Memorial Hall. The statue is now located in the Civico Museo, Revoltena, Trieste, Italy. See also, Hugh Honour, The Image of the Black in Western Art (Menil Foundation, Harvard University Press, 1989), vol. 4, pt. 1, p. 256, fig. 163.
  • Enslaved Woman, British West Indies, 1826

    One of several artistically-created illustrations not uncommonly reproduced in the British antislavery/abolitionist literature of the period. This shows a black woman on a generalized West Indian island on bended knee with shackles around her ankles and wrists; in the background a group of slaves working under the whip. The poem underneath by William Cowper (deceased 1800), the celebrated English poet, who had lent his support to the British movement against the slave trade in the late eighteenth century, and was author of the famous poem used by this movement, The Negro's Complaint. See also images JCB_69-1068-2 and JCB_69-1068-3.
  • Slaves Receiving News of Emancipation, British West Indies, ca. 1834

    Caption, Scene on a West Indian Plantation--Slaves Receiving the News of Their Emancipation. This engraving is occasionally reproduced in secondary sources on Caribbean slavery which imply it is based on an eyewitness drawing. However, the scene has been completely fabricated by the Cassell's late 19th century artist although there are certain realistic features, e.g., dress styles, long-handled hoes, windmill. The drawing accompanies a section of the book which deals with the abolition of slavery in the British colonies (see p. 233).
  • Commemoration of Slave Emancipation in the British Empire, 1834

    Caption, To the friends of Negro emancipation, this printed is inscribed . . . Painted by Alexr. Rippingille; engraved by David Lucas....(London, 1834). Text below reads: A glorious and happy era on the first of August, bursts upon the Western World; England strikes the manacle from the slave, and bids the bond go free. A separately published engraved aquatint engraving, commemorating Britain's emancipation of slaves throughout its empire in 1834. (Copy located in Library Company of Philadelphia).
  • Enslaved Woman, British West Indies, 1826

    One of several artist-created illustrations not uncommonly reproduced in the British antislavery/abolitionist literature of the period. This shows a black woman on a generalized West Indian island on slightly bended knee in position of supplication. The poem extract underneath may have been taken from a poem by William Cowper (deceased 1800), the celebrated English poet, who had lent his support to the British movement against the slave trade in the late eighteenth century, and was author of the famous poem used by this movement, The Negro's Complaint. See also images JCB_69-1068-1 and JCB_69-1068-3.
  • Enslaved Woman and Black Driver, British West Indies, 1826

    One of several artist-created illustrations not uncommonly reproduced in the British antislavery/abolitionist literature of the period. The scene is a West Indian island, a black woman with a small child on her lap being forced into the fields by a black driver holding a whip; in the background a group of slaves working under the whip. The poem extract underneath, The driver's whip unfolds its torturing evil..., may have been taken from a poem by William Cowper (deceased 1800), the celebrated English poet, who had lent his support to the British movement against the slave trade in the late eighteenth century, and was author of the famous poem used by this movement, The Negro's Complaint. See also images JCB_69-1068-1 and JCB_69-1068-2.
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