Black Coachmen, Havana, Cuba, 1839

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Image Reference

José Maria de Andueza, Isla de Cuba; pintoresca . . . . impresiones de dos épocas (Madrid, 1841), unnumbered plate. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library)

Caption, "Entrada del Paseo Militar (Habana)". Urban scene, showing among others, liveried figures of black coachman standing by a carriage (left), and another leading another carriage (right); a black man and woman (center foreground), wearing working clothes or rural dress. This illustration was, in fact, done by the French artist Frederic/Federico Mialhe, who lived in Cuba from 1838 to 1854; see, Emilio Cueto, Mialhe's Colonial Cuba [Miami, The Historical Association of Southern Florida, 1994] for the same image and for identification of the date at which it was done, pp. 33, 34).