Cattle-Driven Sugar Mill, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1798

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Image Reference

José Mariano da Conceicao, O fazendeiro do Brazil (Lisbon, 1798), vol. 1, after p. 192. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)

This engraving shows enslaved blacks operating a rather unusual (by Caribbean standards) mill with vertical rollers; items are numbered and described in the text. Title reads: Plano de Reforma das moendas, epicadeiro dos Engenhos de assucar por Jeronimo Vieira de Abreu, Vizinho da Cidade de S. Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro" ("Diagram of the improvements [or repairs] to the cattle-driven mill of the sugar factory [done] by Jeronimo Vieira de Abreu, in the neighborhhod of the city of Sao Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro).