Punishments for Runaways, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1850s

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Image Reference

Daniel P. Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians, portrayed in historical and descriptive sketches (Philadelphia, 1857), p. 131. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library)

Ilustration shows three slaves, one wearing a log and chain around his neck, another an iron collar; the third wears a tin mask. The first two items "denote runaways," but the mask is placed on city slaves to prevent them from drinking strong liquor and on the "country-slave" to prevent "eating clay, to which many of the field-negroes are addicted" (p. 132). The same illustration appears in later editions of Kidder's work, e.g., 1866 (6th ed.), 1879 (9th ed.). For other illustrations of the tin-mask in Brazil, see images ewbank3, debret-2, magasin1 on this website.