Free Women of Color and Marketing Activities, Brazil, 1816-1831

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Image Reference

Jean Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil (Paris,1834-39), vol. 2, plate 52, p. 100. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)

Captions, (top), "Negresses Libres, vivant de leur travail" (free women of color selling various goods); (bottom), "Negresses Marchandes, de Sonhos, Manoe, Aloa" (Black women vendors of sonhos, manoe, aloa). Sonhos are a type of fritter/cruller or fried cake; manoe/manue is a type of cake made from corn flour, honey and other ingredients; and aloa/alua is a drink made from rice flour, toasted corn, or pineapple rinds (depending on region of Brazil), which are then fermented with sugar in clay jars. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).