Female Clothing and Hair Styles, San Paolo, Brazil, 1817-1820

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Image Reference

Johann Baptist von Spix, Reise in Brasilien in den jahren 1817-1820 (Munchen, 1823-31; reprinted Stuttgart, 1966-67), Atlas (originally published 1831), Plate 33.

Left: "Mameluca", the offspring of a European/Caucasian father and an indigenous mother, shown spinning cotton, using a spindle-whorl; right, "Cafusa", "intermediate race between Indian and black," smoking a very long-stemmed pipe.