Shoemaker and Assistants, Brazil,1816-1831

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Image Reference

Jean Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil (Paris,1834-39),vol. 2, plate 29, p. 91. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)

Caption, "Boutique de Cordoniere," shows white shoemaker with black assistants/apprentices. A nursing mother shown on the left, while the shoemaker is beating a slave with a "palmatoria, a wooden paddle with holes in it" (James Sweet, Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African Portuguese World, 1441-1770 [University of North Carolina Press, 2003], p. 212). The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).