Carters Transporting Goods, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1850s

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Image Reference

Daniel P. Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians, portrayed in historical and descriptive sketches (Philadelphia, 1857), p. 28. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library)

Captioned, "The Rio team (now abolished)," this illustration shows a group of "five stalwart Africans" pulling and pushing a "dray" or low cart heavily loaded with goods that were recently unloaded from a ship. "Formerly," the author writes, "all this labor was performed by human hands, and scarcely a cart or a dray was used in the city, unless . . . it was drawn by Negroes. Carts and wagons propelled by horse-power are now quite common . . ." (p. 29). The same illustration appears in later editions of this work, e.g., 1866 (6th ed.), 1879 (9th ed.).