Bread and Fodder Sellers, Havana, Cuba, ca. 1850

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Album Pintoresco de la Isla de Cuba (Havana[?], 1851 [?]), plate 13 (copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library). The University of Miami copy is cataloged as Havana [ca. 1850]; other libraries give Havana, with various dates, e.g., 1851, 1853, 1855. See also comments.

Caption, "El Pandero y El Malojero" (Bread Seller and Seller of "Maloja"). On the left the baker and his slave, the "mozo" (carrying the basket marked "pandero"); on the right, the Malojero with his helper and slave. "Maloja" is a Cuban word, often used to describe fodder from maize, but it can also refer to fodder from other grasses. (Thanks to Raol Fernandez for assistance with this translation). Samuel Hazard visited Cuba around 1866. He has a b/w illustration in his book (p. 173) , identical to the one of the "Pandera" shown here, and describes the "mozo" as follows: "This fellow . . . who accompanies his master, the baker ['panadero'] through the streets, to dispose of his supply; or, if he has a regular set of customers, goes alone from place to place, carrying his load of bread . . . on his [head]"; the bags hanging from his arms are made of plaited palm leaf and are filled with rolls." Commenting on the black population of Havana in general, he writes that "many of them are the imported slaves of Africa, who have bought their freedom, while others, again, belong to owners who let them their time, allowing them to pursue any vocation they choose, only requiring them to pay so much per day out of their earnings" (Samuel Hazard, Cuba with pen and pencil [Hartford, Conn., 1871], pp. 173, 195). For a b/w engraved scene very similar to this one, accompanying an article on markets in Cuba, but which focuses on the Bread Seller, see Le Magasin Pittoresque (Paris, 1857), p. 389. This and other lithographs in this album were done by the French artist Frederic/Federico Mialhe, who lived in Cuba from 1838 to 1854; they were plagiarized by Bernardo May who had them published under his own name. (Thanks to Lesbia O, Varona for help in identifying this item and clarifying bibliographic issues; see also, Emilio Cueto, Mialhe's Colonial Cuba [Miami, The Historical Association of Southern Florida, 1994], pp. 97-99 for the same image and discussion of it.)